Research papers and code for "Yu Li":
Deep reinforcement learning has shown its success in game playing. However, 2.5D fighting games would be a challenging task to handle due to ambiguity in visual appearances like height or depth of the characters. Moreover, actions in such games typically involve particular sequential action orders, which also makes the network design very difficult. Based on the network of Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C), we create an OpenAI-gym-like gaming environment with the game of Little Fighter 2 (LF2), and present a novel A3C+ network for learning RL agents. The introduced model includes a Recurrent Info network, which utilizes game-related info features with recurrent layers to observe combo skills for fighting. In the experiments, we consider LF2 in different settings, which successfully demonstrates the use of our proposed model for learning 2.5D fighting games.

* ICIP 2018
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The optimal mixing evolutionary algorithms (OMEAs) have recently drawn much attention for their robustness, small size of required population, and efficiency in terms of number of function evaluations (NFE). In this paper, the performances and behaviors of OMEAs are studied by investigating the mechanism of optimal mixing (OM), the variation operator in OMEAs, under two scenarios -- one-layer and two-layer masks. For the case of one-layer masks, the required population size is derived from the viewpoint of initial supply, while the convergence time is derived by analyzing the progress of sub-solution growth. NFE is then asymptotically bounded with rational probability by estimating the probability of performing evaluations. For the case of two-layer masks, empirical results indicate that the required population size is proportional to both the degree of cross competition and the results from the one-layer-mask case. The derived models also indicate that population sizing is decided by initial supply when disjoint masks are adopted, that the high selection pressure imposed by OM makes the composition of sub-problems impact little on NFE, and that the population size requirement for two-layer masks increases with the reverse-growth probability.

* Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, pages 535-542, 2015
* 8 pages, 2015 GECCO oral paper
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Person re-identification (Re-ID) aims at recognizing the same person from images taken across different cameras. To address this task, one typically requires a large amount labeled data for training an effective Re-ID model, which might not be practical for real-world applications. To alleviate this limitation, we choose to exploit a sufficient amount of pre-existing labeled data from a different (auxiliary) dataset. By jointly considering such an auxiliary dataset and the dataset of interest (but without label information), our proposed adaptation and re-identification network (ARN) performs unsupervised domain adaptation, which leverages information across datasets and derives domain-invariant features for Re-ID purposes. In our experiments, we verify that our network performs favorably against state-of-the-art unsupervised Re-ID approaches, and even outperforms a number of baseline Re-ID methods which require fully supervised data for training.

* 7 pages, 3 figures. CVPR 2018 workshop paper
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Multi-instance learning attempts to learn from a training set consisting of labeled bags each containing many unlabeled instances. Previous studies typically treat the instances in the bags as independently and identically distributed. However, the instances in a bag are rarely independent, and therefore a better performance can be expected if the instances are treated in an non-i.i.d. way that exploits the relations among instances. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective multi-instance learning method, which regards each bag as a graph and uses a specific kernel to distinguish the graphs by considering the features of the nodes as well as the features of the edges that convey some relations among instances. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experiments.

* ICML, 2009
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Audio-visual event localization requires one to identify theevent which is both visible and audible in a video (eitherat a frame or video level). To address this task, we pro-pose a deep neural network named Audio-Visual sequence-to-sequence dual network (AVSDN). By jointly taking bothaudio and visual features at each time segment as inputs, ourproposed model learns global and local event information ina sequence to sequence manner, which can be realized in ei-ther fully supervised or weakly supervised settings. Empiricalresults confirm that our proposed method performs favorablyagainst recent deep learning approaches in both settings.

* Accepted in ICASSP 2019
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Recent progress in biomedical image segmentation based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has drawn much attention. However, its vulnerability towards adversarial samples cannot be overlooked. This paper is the first one that discovers that all the CNN-based state-of-the-art biomedical image segmentation models are sensitive to adversarial perturbations. This limits the deployment of these methods in safety-critical biomedical fields. In this paper, we discover that global spatial dependencies and global contextual information in a biomedical image can be exploited to defend against adversarial attacks. To this end, non-local context encoder (NLCE) is proposed to model short- and long range spatial dependencies and encode global contexts for strengthening feature activations by channel-wise attention. The NLCE modules enhance the robustness and accuracy of the non-local context encoding network (NLCEN), which learns robust enhanced pyramid feature representations with NLCE modules, and then integrates the information across different levels. Experiments on both lung and skin lesion segmentation datasets have demonstrated that NLCEN outperforms any other state-of-the-art biomedical image segmentation methods against adversarial attacks. In addition, NLCE modules can be applied to improve the robustness of other CNN-based biomedical image segmentation methods.

* Accepted by AAAI2019 as oral presentation
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Being able to predict whether a song can be a hit has impor- tant applications in the music industry. Although it is true that the popularity of a song can be greatly affected by exter- nal factors such as social and commercial influences, to which degree audio features computed from musical signals (whom we regard as internal factors) can predict song popularity is an interesting research question on its own. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning techniques, we attempt to ex- tend previous work on hit song prediction by jointly learning the audio features and prediction models using deep learning. Specifically, we experiment with a convolutional neural net- work model that takes the primitive mel-spectrogram as the input for feature learning, a more advanced JYnet model that uses an external song dataset for supervised pre-training and auto-tagging, and the combination of these two models. We also consider the inception model to characterize audio infor- mation in different scales. Our experiments suggest that deep structures are indeed more accurate than shallow structures in predicting the popularity of either Chinese or Western Pop songs in Taiwan. We also use the tags predicted by JYnet to gain insights into the result of different models.

* To appear in the proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
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Multi-label learning deals with the classification problems where each instance can be assigned with multiple labels simultaneously. Conventional multi-label learning approaches mainly focus on exploiting label correlations. It is usually assumed, explicitly or implicitly, that the label sets for training instances are fully labeled without any missing labels. However, in many real-world multi-label datasets, the label assignments for training instances can be incomplete. Some ground-truth labels can be missed by the labeler from the label set. This problem is especially typical when the number instances is very large, and the labeling cost is very high, which makes it almost impossible to get a fully labeled training set. In this paper, we study the problem of large-scale multi-label learning with incomplete label assignments. We propose an approach, called MPU, based upon positive and unlabeled stochastic gradient descent and stacked models. Unlike prior works, our method can effectively and efficiently consider missing labels and label correlations simultaneously, and is very scalable, that has linear time complexities over the size of the data. Extensive experiments on two real-world multi-label datasets show that our MPU model consistently outperform other commonly-used baselines.

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Language documentation is inherently a time-intensive process; transcription, glossing, and corpus management consume a significant portion of documentary linguists' work. Advances in natural language processing can help to accelerate this work, using the linguists' past decisions as training material, but questions remain about how to prioritize human involvement. In this extended abstract, we describe the beginnings of a new project that will attempt to ease this language documentation process through the use of natural language processing (NLP) technology. It is based on (1) methods to adapt NLP tools to new languages, based on recent advances in massively multilingual neural networks, and (2) backend APIs and interfaces that allow linguists to upload their data. We then describe our current progress on two fronts: automatic phoneme transcription, and glossing. Finally, we briefly describe our future directions.

* 4 pages, 8 figures, accepted by ComputEL-3
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Machine learning techniques have deeply rooted in our everyday life. However, since it is knowledge- and labor-intensive to pursuit good learning performance, human experts are heavily engaged in every aspect of machine learning. In order to make machine learning techniques easier to apply and reduce the demand for experienced human experts, automatic machine learning~(AutoML) has emerged as a hot topic of both in industry and academy. In this paper, we provide a survey on existing AutoML works. First, we introduce and define the AutoML problem, with inspiration from both realms of automation and machine learning. Then, we propose a general AutoML framework that not only covers almost all existing approaches but also guides the design for new methods. Afterward, we categorize and review the existing works from two aspects, i.e., the problem setup and the employed techniques. Finally, we provide a detailed analysis of AutoML approaches and explain the reasons underneath their successful applications. We hope this survey can serve as not only an insightful guideline for AutoML beginners but also an inspiration for future researches.

* This is a preliminary and will be kept updated
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Detecting a change point is a crucial task in statistics that has been recently extended to the quantum realm. A source state generator that emits a series of single photons in a default state suffers an alteration at some point and starts to emit photons in a mutated state. The problem consists in identifying the point where the change took place. In this work, we consider a learning agent that applies Bayesian inference on experimental data to solve this problem. This learning machine adjusts the measurement over each photon according to the past experimental results finds the change position in an online fashion. Our results show that the local-detection success probability can be largely improved by using such a machine learning technique. This protocol provides a tool for improvement in many applications where a sequence of identical quantum states is required.

* Phys. Rev. A 98, 040301 (2018)
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Image-to-image translation is a class of image processing and vision problems that translates an image to a different style or domain. To improve the capacity and performance of one-to-one translation models, multi-mapping image translation have been attempting to extend them for multiple mappings by injecting latent code. Through the analysis of the existing latent code injection models, we find that latent code can determine the target mapping of a generator by controlling the output statistical properties, especially the mean value. However, we find that in some cases the normalization will reduce the consistency of same mapping or the diversity of different mappings. After mathematical analysis, we find the reason behind that is that the distributions of same mapping become inconsistent after batch normalization, and that the effects of latent code are eliminated after instance normalization. To solve these problems, we propose consistency within diversity design criteria for multi-mapping networks. Based on the design criteria, we propose central biasing normalization (CBN) to replace existing latent code injection. CBN can be easily integrated into existing multi-mapping models, significantly reducing model parameters. Experiments show that the results of our method is more stable and diverse than that of existing models. https://github.com/Xiaoming-Yu/cbn .

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Despite our unique ability to use natural languages, we know little about their origins like how they are created and evolved. The answer lies deeply in the evolution of our cognitive and social abilities over a very long period of time which is beyond our scrutiny. Existing studies on the origin of languages are often focused on the emergence of specific language features (such as recursion) without supporting a comprehensive view. Investigation of restricted language representations, such as temporal logic, unfortunately does not reveal much about the impetus underlying language formation and evolution, since much of their construction is based on natural languages themselves. In this paper, we investigate the origin of "natural languages" in a restricted setting involving only planning agents. Similar to a common view that considers languages as a tool for grounding symbols to semantic meanings, we take the view that a language for planning agents is a tool for grounding symbols to physical configurations. From this perspective, a language is used by the agents to coordinate their behaviors during planning. With a few assumptions, we show that language is closely connected to a type of domain abstractions, based on which a language can be constructed. We study how such abstractions can be identified and discuss how to use them during planning. We apply our method to several domains, discuss the results, and relaxation of the assumptions made.

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In this paper, we study a multi-step interactive recommendation problem, where the item recommended at current step may affect the quality of future recommendations. To address the problem, we develop a novel and effective approach, named CFRL, which seamlessly integrates the ideas of both collaborative filtering (CF) and reinforcement learning (RL). More specifically, we first model the recommender-user interactive recommendation problem as an agent-environment RL task, which is mathematically described by a Markov decision process (MDP). Further, to achieve collaborative recommendations for the entire user community, we propose a novel CF-based MDP by encoding the states of all users into a shared latent vector space. Finally, we propose an effective Q-network learning method to learn the agent's optimal policy based on the CF-based MDP. The capability of CFRL is demonstrated by comparing its performance against a variety of existing methods on real-world datasets.

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Image ranking is to rank images based on some known ranked images. In this paper, we propose an improved linear ordinal distance metric learning approach based on the linear distance metric learning model. By decomposing the distance metric $A$ as $L^TL$, the problem can be cast as looking for a linear map between two sets of points in different spaces, meanwhile maintaining some data structures. The ordinal relation of the labels can be maintained via classical multidimensional scaling, a popular tool for dimension reduction in statistics. A least squares fitting term is then introduced to the cost function, which can also maintain the local data structure. The resulting model is an unconstrained problem, and can better fit the data structure. Extensive numerical results demonstrate the improvement of the new approach over the linear distance metric learning model both in speed and ranking performance.

* Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research 35 (2018)
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Web page saliency prediction is a challenge problem in image transformation and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new model combined with web page outline information to prediction people's interest region in web page. For each web page image, our model can generate the saliency map which indicates the region of interest for people. A two-stage generative adversarial networks are proposed and image outline information is introduced for better transferring. Experiment results on FIWI dataset show that our model have better performance in terms of saliency prediction.

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In this paper, we summarize recent progresses made in deep learning based acoustic models and the motivation and insights behind the surveyed techniques. We first discuss acoustic models that can effectively exploit variable-length contextual information, such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs), convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and their various combination with other models. We then describe acoustic models that are optimized end-to-end with emphasis on feature representations learned jointly with rest of the system, the connectionist temporal classification (CTC) criterion, and the attention-based sequence-to-sequence model. We further illustrate robustness issues in speech recognition systems, and discuss acoustic model adaptation, speech enhancement and separation, and robust training strategies. We also cover modeling techniques that lead to more efficient decoding and discuss possible future directions in acoustic model research.

* This is an updated version with latest literature until ICASSP2018 of the paper: Dong Yu and Jinyu Li, "Recent Progresses in Deep Learning based Acoustic Models," vol.4, no.3, IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, 2017
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Deep convolutional neural networks have become a key element in the recent breakthrough of salient object detection. However, existing CNN-based methods are based on either patch-wise (region-wise) training and inference or fully convolutional networks. Methods in the former category are generally time-consuming due to severe storage and computational redundancies among overlapping patches. To overcome this deficiency, methods in the second category attempt to directly map a raw input image to a predicted dense saliency map in a single network forward pass. Though being very efficient, it is arduous for these methods to detect salient objects of different scales or salient regions with weak semantic information. In this paper, we develop hybrid contrast-oriented deep neural networks to overcome the aforementioned limitations. Each of our deep networks is composed of two complementary components, including a fully convolutional stream for dense prediction and a segment-level spatial pooling stream for sparse saliency inference. We further propose an attentional module that learns weight maps for fusing the two saliency predictions from these two streams. A tailored alternate scheme is designed to train these deep networks by fine-tuning pre-trained baseline models. Finally, a customized fully connected CRF model incorporating a salient contour feature embedding can be optionally applied as a post-processing step to improve spatial coherence and contour positioning in the fused result from these two streams. Extensive experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed model can significantly outperform the state of the art in terms of all popular evaluation metrics.

* Accept to TNNLS
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Visual saliency is a fundamental problem in both cognitive and computational sciences, including computer vision. In this paper, we discover that a high-quality visual saliency model can be learned from multiscale features extracted using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which have had many successes in visual recognition tasks. For learning such saliency models, we introduce a neural network architecture, which has fully connected layers on top of CNNs responsible for feature extraction at three different scales. The penultimate layer of our neural network has been confirmed to be a discriminative high-level feature vector for saliency detection, which we call deep contrast feature. To generate a more robust feature, we integrate handcrafted low-level features with our deep contrast feature. To promote further research and evaluation of visual saliency models, we also construct a new large database of 4447 challenging images and their pixelwise saliency annotations. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is capable of achieving state-of-the-art performance on all public benchmarks, improving the F- measure by 6.12% and 10.0% respectively on the DUT-OMRON dataset and our new dataset (HKU-IS), and lowering the mean absolute error by 9% and 35.3% respectively on these two datasets.

* Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
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