Models, code, and papers for "Yun Wang":
In this paper, a unified susceptible-exposed-infected-susceptible-aware (SEIS-A) framework is proposed to combine epidemic spreading with individuals' on-line self-consultation behaviors. An epidemic spreading prediction model is established based on the SEIS-A framework. The prediction process contains two phases. In phase I, the time series data of disease density are decomposed through the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to obtain the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In phase II, the ensemble learning techniques which use the on-line query data as an additional input are applied to these IMFs. Finally, experiments for prediction of weekly consultation rates of Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in Hong Kong are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The main advantage of this method is that it outperforms other methods on fluctuating complex data.
Tensor decompositions have rich applications in statistics and machine learning, and developing efficient, accurate algorithms for the problem has received much attention recently. Here, we present a new method built on Kruskal's uniqueness theorem to decompose symmetric, nearly orthogonally decomposable tensors. Unlike the classical higher-order singular value decomposition which unfolds a tensor along a single mode, we consider unfoldings along two modes and use rank-1 constraints to characterize the underlying components. This tensor decomposition method provably handles a greater level of noise compared to previous methods and achieves a high estimation accuracy. Numerical results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust to various noise distributions and that it performs especially favorably as the order increases.
Recently dictionary screening has been proposed as an effective way to improve the computational efficiency of solving the lasso problem, which is one of the most commonly used method for learning sparse representations. To address today's ever increasing large dataset, effective screening relies on a tight region bound on the solution to the dual lasso. Typical region bounds are in the form of an intersection of a sphere and multiple half spaces. One way to tighten the region bound is using more half spaces, which however, adds to the overhead of solving the high dimensional optimization problem in lasso screening. This paper reveals the interesting property that the optimization problem only depends on the projection of features onto the subspace spanned by the normals of the half spaces. This property converts an optimization problem in high dimension to much lower dimension, and thus sheds light on reducing the computation overhead of lasso screening based on tighter region bounds.
Reinforcement learning can interact with the environment and is suitable for applications in decision control systems. Therefore, we used the reinforcement learning method to establish a foreign exchange transaction, avoiding the long-standing problem of unstable trends in deep learning predictions. In the system design, we optimized the Sure-Fire statistical arbitrage policy, set three different actions, encoded the continuous price over a period of time into a heat-map view of the Gramian Angular Field (GAF) and compared the Deep Q Learning (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) algorithms. To test feasibility, we analyzed three currency pairs, namely EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and AUD/USD. We trained the data in units of four hours from 1 August 2018 to 30 November 2018 and tested model performance using data between 1 December 2018 and 31 December 2018. The test results of the various models indicated that favorable investment performance was achieved as long as the model was able to handle complex and random processes and the state was able to describe the environment, validating the feasibility of reinforcement learning in the development of trading strategies.
In this paper, the dynamic constrained optimization problem of weights adaptation for heterogeneous epidemic spreading networks is investigated. Due to the powerful ability of searching global optimum, evolutionary algorithms are employed as the optimizers. One major difficulty following is that the dimension of the weights adaptation optimization problem is increasing exponentially with the network size and most existing evolutionary algorithms cannot achieve satisfied performance on large-scale optimization problems. To address this issue, a novel constrained cooperative coevolution ($C^3$) strategy which can separate the original large-scale problem into different subcomponents is tailored for this problem. Meanwhile, the $\epsilon$ constraint-handling technique is employed to achieve the tradeoff between constraint and objective function. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, some numerical simulations are conducted on a B\' arabasi-Albert network.
One way to solve lasso problems when the dictionary does not fit into available memory is to first screen the dictionary to remove unneeded features. Prior research has shown that sequential screening methods offer the greatest promise in this endeavor. Most existing work on sequential screening targets the context of tuning parameter selection, where one screens and solves a sequence of $N$ lasso problems with a fixed grid of geometrically spaced regularization parameters. In contrast, we focus on the scenario where a target regularization parameter has already been chosen via cross-validated model selection, and we then need to solve many lasso instances using this fixed value. In this context, we propose and explore a feedback controlled sequential screening scheme. Feedback is used at each iteration to select the next problem to be solved. This allows the sequence of problems to be adapted to the instance presented and the number of intermediate problems to be automatically selected. We demonstrate our feedback scheme using several datasets including a dictionary of approximate size 100,000 by 300,000.
Existing works about fashion outfit compatibility focus on predicting the overall compatibility of a set of fashion items with their information from different modalities. However, there are few works explore how to explain the prediction, which limits the persuasiveness and effectiveness of the model. In this work, we propose an approach to not only predict but also diagnose the outfit compatibility. We introduce an end-to-end framework for this goal, which features for: (1) The overall compatibility is learned from all type-specified pairwise similarities between items, and the backpropagation gradients are used to diagnose the incompatible factors. (2) We leverage the hierarchy of CNN and compare the features at different layers to take into account the compatibilities of different aspects from the low level (such as color, texture) to the high level (such as style). To support the proposed method, we build a new type-specified outfit dataset named Polyvore-T based on Polyvore dataset. We compare our method with the prior state-of-the-art in two tasks: outfit compatibility prediction and fill-in-the-blank. Experiments show that our approach has advantages in both prediction performance and diagnosis ability.
3D object detection is still an open problem in autonomous driving scenes. Robots recognize and localize key objects from sparse inputs, and suffer from a larger continuous searching space as well as serious fore-background imbalance compared to the image-based detection. In this paper, we try to solve the fore-background imbalance in the 3D object detection task. Inspired by the recent improvement of focal loss on image-based detection which is seen as a hard-mining improvement of binary cross entropy, we extend it to point-cloud-based object detection and conduct experiments to show its performance based on two different type of 3D detectors: 3D-FCN and VoxelNet. The results show up to 11.2 AP gains from focal loss in a wide range of hyperparameters in 3D object detection. Our code is available at https://github.com/pyun-ram/FL3D.
This paper is a survey of dictionary screening for the lasso problem. The lasso problem seeks a sparse linear combination of the columns of a dictionary to best match a given target vector. This sparse representation has proven useful in a variety of subsequent processing and decision tasks. For a given target vector, dictionary screening quickly identifies a subset of dictionary columns that will receive zero weight in a solution of the corresponding lasso problem. These columns can be removed from the dictionary prior to solving the lasso problem without impacting the optimality of the solution obtained. This has two potential advantages: it reduces the size of the dictionary, allowing the lasso problem to be solved with less resources, and it may speed up obtaining a solution. Using a geometrically intuitive framework, we provide basic insights for understanding useful lasso screening tests and their limitations. We also provide illustrative numerical studies on several datasets.
Translational distance-based knowledge graph embedding has shown progressive improvements on the link prediction task, from TransE to the latest state-of-the-art RotatE. However, N-1, 1-N and N-N predictions still remain challenging. In this work, we propose a novel translational distance-based approach for knowledge graph link prediction. The proposed method includes two-folds, first we extend the RotatE from 2D complex domain to high dimension space with orthogonal transforms to model relations for better modeling capacity. Second, the graph context is explicitly modeled via two directed context representations. These context representations are used as part of the distance scoring function to measure the plausibility of the triples during training and inference. The proposed approach effectively improves prediction accuracy on the difficult N-1, 1-N and N-N cases for knowledge graph link prediction task. The experimental results show that it achieves better performance on two benchmark data sets compared to the baseline RotatE, especially on data set (FB15k-237) with many high in-degree connection nodes.
Due to the lack of parallel data in current Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) task, models based on Sequence to Sequence framework cannot be adequately trained to obtain higher performance. We propose two data synthesis methods which can control the error rate and the ratio of error types on synthetic data. The first approach is to corrupt each word in the monolingual corpus with a fixed probability, including replacement, insertion and deletion. Another approach is to train error generation models and further filtering the decoding results of the models. The experiments on different synthetic data show that the error rate is 40% and the ratio of error types is the same can improve the model performance better. Finally, we synthesize about 100 million data and achieve comparable performance as the state of the art, which uses twice as much data as we use.
Clustering big data often requires tremendous computational resources where cloud computing is undoubtedly one of the promising solutions. However, the computation cost in the cloud can be unexpectedly high if it cannot be managed properly. The long tail phenomenon has been observed widely in the big data clustering area, which indicates that the majority of time is often consumed in the middle to late stages in the clustering process. In this research, we try to cut the unnecessary long tail in the clustering process to achieve a sufficiently satisfactory accuracy at the lowest possible computation cost. A novel approach is proposed to achieve cost-effective big data clustering in the cloud. By training the regression model with the sampling data, we can make widely used k-means and EM (Expectation-Maximization) algorithms stop automatically at an early point when the desired accuracy is obtained. Experiments are conducted on four popular data sets and the results demonstrate that both k-means and EM algorithms can achieve high cost-effectiveness in the cloud with our proposed approach. For example, in the case studies with the much more efficient k-means algorithm, we find that achieving a 99% accuracy needs only 47.71%-71.14% of the computation cost required for achieving a 100% accuracy while the less efficient EM algorithm needs 16.69%-32.04% of the computation cost. To put that into perspective, in the United States land use classification example, our approach can save up to $94,687.49 for the government in each use.
Pre-training Transformer from large-scale raw texts and fine-tuning on the desired task have achieved state-of-the-art results on diverse NLP tasks. However, it is unclear what the learned attention captures. The attention computed by attention heads seems not to match human intuitions about hierarchical structures. This paper proposes Tree Transformer, which adds an extra constraint to attention heads of the bidirectional Transformer encoder in order to encourage the attention heads to follow tree structures. The tree structures can be automatically induced from raw texts by our proposed ``Constituent Attention'' module, which is simply implemented by self-attention between two adjacent words. With the same training procedure identical to BERT, the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Tree Transformer in terms of inducing tree structures, better language modeling, and further learning more explainable attention scores.
Three-dimensional (3-D) scene reconstruction is one of the key techniques in Augmented Reality (AR), which is related to the integration of image processing and display systems of complex information. Stereo matching is a computer vision based approach for 3-D scene reconstruction. In this paper, we explore an improved stereo matching network, SLED-Net, in which a Single Long Encoder-Decoder is proposed to replace the stacked hourglass network in PSM-Net for better contextual information learning. We compare SLED-Net to state-of-the-art methods recently published, and demonstrate its superior performance on Scene Flow and KITTI2015 test sets.
In this paper, we present an OpenCL-based heterogeneous implementation of a computer vision algorithm -- image inpainting-based object removal algorithm -- on mobile devices. To take advantage of the computation power of the mobile processor, the algorithm workflow is partitioned between the CPU and the GPU based on the profiling results on mobile devices, so that the computationally-intensive kernels are accelerated by the mobile GPGPU (general-purpose computing using graphics processing units). By exploring the implementation trade-offs and utilizing the proposed optimization strategies at different levels including algorithm optimization, parallelism optimization, and memory access optimization, we significantly speed up the algorithm with the CPU-GPU heterogeneous implementation, while preserving the quality of the output images. Experimental results show that heterogeneous computing based on GPGPU co-processing can significantly speed up the computer vision algorithms and makes them practical on real-world mobile devices.
In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised feature learning framework, namely Deep Sparse Coding (DeepSC), that extends sparse coding to a multi-layer architecture for visual object recognition tasks. The main innovation of the framework is that it connects the sparse-encoders from different layers by a sparse-to-dense module. The sparse-to-dense module is a composition of a local spatial pooling step and a low-dimensional embedding process, which takes advantage of the spatial smoothness information in the image. As a result, the new method is able to learn several levels of sparse representation of the image which capture features at a variety of abstraction levels and simultaneously preserve the spatial smoothness between the neighboring image patches. Combining the feature representations from multiple layers, DeepSC achieves the state-of-the-art performance on multiple object recognition tasks.
In the past decades, spectral clustering (SC) has become one of the most effective clustering algorithms. However, most previous studies focus on spectral clustering tasks with a fixed task set, which cannot incorporate with a new spectral clustering task without accessing to previously learned tasks. In this paper, we aim to explore the problem of spectral clustering in a lifelong machine learning framework, i.e., Lifelong Spectral Clustering (L2SC). Its goal is to efficiently learn a model for a new spectral clustering task by selectively transferring previously accumulated experience from knowledge library. Specifically, the knowledge library of L2SC contains two components: 1) orthogonal basis library: capturing latent cluster centers among the clusters in each pair of tasks; 2) feature embedding library: embedding the feature manifold information shared among multiple related tasks. As a new spectral clustering task arrives, L2SC firstly transfers knowledge from both basis library and feature library to obtain encoding matrix, and further redefines the library base over time to maximize performance across all the clustering tasks. Meanwhile, a general online update formulation is derived to alternatively update the basis library and feature library. Finally, the empirical experiments on several real-world benchmark datasets demonstrate that our L2SC model can effectively improve the clustering performance when comparing with other state-of-the-art spectral clustering algorithms.