Models, code, and papers for "Zhong Liu":

Bayesian Analysis for miRNA and mRNA Interactions Using Expression Data

Jun 30, 2014
Mingjun Zhong, Rong Liu, Bo Liu

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules composed of 19-22 nt, which play important regulatory roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation by inhibiting the translation of the mRNA into proteins or otherwise cleaving the target mRNA. Inferring miRNA targets provides useful information for understanding the roles of miRNA in biological processes that are potentially involved in complex diseases. Statistical methodologies for point estimation, such as the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) algorithm, have been proposed to identify the interactions of miRNA and mRNA based on sequence and expression data. In this paper, we propose using the Bayesian LASSO (BLASSO) and the non-negative Bayesian LASSO (nBLASSO) to analyse the interactions between miRNA and mRNA using expression data. The proposed Bayesian methods explore the posterior distributions for those parameters required to model the miRNA-mRNA interactions. These approaches can be used to observe the inferred effects of the miRNAs on the targets by plotting the posterior distributions of those parameters. For comparison purposes, the Least Squares Regression (LSR), Ridge Regression (RR), LASSO, non-negative LASSO (nLASSO), and the proposed Bayesian approaches were applied to four public datasets. We concluded that nLASSO and nBLASSO perform best in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Compared to the point estimate algorithms, which only provide single estimates for those parameters, the Bayesian methods are more meaningful and provide credible intervals, which take into account the uncertainty of the inferred interactions of the miRNA and mRNA. Furthermore, Bayesian methods naturally provide statistical significance to select convincing inferred interactions, while point estimate algorithms require a manually chosen threshold, which is less meaningful, to choose the possible interactions.

* 21 pages, 11 figures, 8 tables 

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P-MCGS: Parallel Monte Carlo Acyclic Graph Search

Oct 28, 2018
Chen Yu, Jianshu Chen, Jie Zhong, Ji Liu

Recently, there have been great interests in Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) in AI research. Although the sequential version of MCTS has been studied widely, its parallel counterpart still lacks systematic study. This leads us to the following questions: \emph{how to design efficient parallel MCTS (or more general cases) algorithms with rigorous theoretical guarantee? Is it possible to achieve linear speedup?} In this paper, we consider the search problem on a more general acyclic one-root graph (namely, Monte Carlo Graph Search (MCGS)), which generalizes MCTS. We develop a parallel algorithm (P-MCGS) to assign multiple workers to investigate appropriate leaf nodes simultaneously. Our analysis shows that P-MCGS algorithm achieves linear speedup and that the sample complexity is comparable to its sequential counterpart.

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Shift-based Primitives for Efficient Convolutional Neural Networks

Sep 25, 2018
Huasong Zhong, Xianggen Liu, Yihui He, Yuchun Ma

We propose a collection of three shift-based primitives for building efficient compact CNN-based networks. These three primitives (channel shift, address shift, shortcut shift) can reduce the inference time on GPU while maintains the prediction accuracy. These shift-based primitives only moves the pointer but avoids memory copy, thus very fast. For example, the channel shift operation is 12.7x faster compared to channel shuffle in ShuffleNet but achieves the same accuracy. The address shift and channel shift can be merged into the point-wise group convolution and invokes only a single kernel call, taking little time to perform spatial convolution and channel shift. Shortcut shift requires no time to realize residual connection through allocating space in advance. We blend these shift-based primitives with point-wise group convolution and built two inference-efficient CNN architectures named AddressNet and Enhanced AddressNet. Experiments on CIFAR100 and ImageNet datasets show that our models are faster and achieve comparable or better accuracy.

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Federated Imitation Learning: A Privacy Considered Imitation Learning Framework for Cloud Robotic Systems with Heterogeneous Sensor Data

Sep 15, 2019
Boyi Liu, Lujia Wang, Ming Liu, Cheng-Zhong Xu

Humans are capable of learning a new behavior by observing others perform the skill. Robots can also implement this by imitation learning. Furthermore, if with external guidance, humans will master the new behavior more efficiently. So how can robots implement this? To address the issue, we present Federated Imitation Learning (FIL) in the paper. Firstly, a knowledge fusion algorithm deployed on the cloud for fusing knowledge from local robots is presented. Then, effective transfer learning methods in FIL are introduced. With FIL, a robot is capable of utilizing knowledge from other robots to increase its imitation learning. FIL considers information privacy and data heterogeneity when robots share knowledge. It is suitable to be deployed in cloud robotic systems. Finally, we conduct experiments of a simplified self-driving task for robots (cars). The experimental results demonstrate that FIL is capable of increasing imitation learning of local robots in cloud robotic systems.

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PASS3D: Precise and Accelerated Semantic Segmentation for 3D Point Cloud

Sep 04, 2019
Xin Kong, Guangyao Zhai, Baoquan Zhong, Yong Liu

In this paper, we propose PASS3D to achieve point-wise semantic segmentation for 3D point cloud. Our framework combines the efficiency of traditional geometric methods with robustness of deep learning methods, consisting of two stages: At stage-1, our accelerated cluster proposal algorithm will generate refined cluster proposals by segmenting point clouds without ground, capable of generating less redundant proposals with higher recall in an extremely short time; stage-2 we will amplify and further process these proposals by a neural network to estimate semantic label for each point and meanwhile propose a novel data augmentation method to enhance the network's recognition capability for all categories especially for non-rigid objects. Evaluated on KITTI raw dataset, PASS3D stands out against the state-of-the-art on some results, making itself competent to 3D perception in autonomous driving system. Our source code will be open-sourced. A video demonstration is available at

* This paper has been accepted by IROS-2019 

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Better accuracy with quantified privacy: representations learned via reconstructive adversarial network

Jan 25, 2019
Sicong Liu, Anshumali Shrivastava, Junzhao Du, Lin Zhong

The remarkable success of machine learning, especially deep learning, has produced a variety of cloud-based services for mobile users. Such services require an end user to send data to the service provider, which presents a serious challenge to end-user privacy. To address this concern, prior works either add noise to the data or send features extracted from the raw data. They struggle to balance between the utility and privacy because added noise reduces utility and raw data can be reconstructed from extracted features. This work represents a methodical departure from prior works: we balance between a measure of privacy and another of utility by leveraging adversarial learning to find a sweeter tradeoff. We design an encoder that optimizes against the reconstruction error (a measure of privacy), adversarially by a Decoder, and the inference accuracy (a measure of utility) by a Classifier. The result is RAN, a novel deep model with a new training algorithm that automatically extracts features for classification that are both private and useful. It turns out that adversarially forcing the extracted features to only conveys the intended information required by classification leads to an implicit regularization leading to better classification accuracy than the original model which completely ignores privacy. Thus, we achieve better privacy with better utility, a surprising possibility in machine learning! We conducted extensive experiments on five popular datasets over four training schemes, and demonstrate the superiority of RAN compared with existing alternatives.

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Structure Learning of Deep Networks via DNA Computing Algorithm

Oct 25, 2018
Guoqiang Zhong, Tao Li, Wenxue Liu, Yang Chen

Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has gained state-of-the-art results in many pattern recognition and computer vision tasks. However, most of the CNN structures are manually designed by experienced researchers. Therefore, auto- matically building high performance networks becomes an important problem. In this paper, we introduce the idea of using DNA computing algorithm to automatically learn high-performance architectures. In DNA computing algorithm, we use short DNA strands to represent layers and long DNA strands to represent overall networks. We found that most of the learned models perform similarly, and only those performing worse during the first runs of training will perform worse finally than others. The indicates that: 1) Using DNA computing algorithm to learn deep architectures is feasible; 2) Local minima should not be a problem of deep networks; 3) We can use early stop to kill the models with the bad performance just after several runs of training. In our experiments, an accuracy 99.73% was obtained on the MNIST data set and an accuracy 95.10% was obtained on the CIFAR-10 data set.

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Probabilistic Matrix Factorization with Personalized Differential Privacy

Oct 19, 2018
Shun Zhang, Laixiang Liu, Zhili Chen, Hong Zhong

Probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) plays a crucial role in recommendation systems. It requires a large amount of user data (such as user shopping records and movie ratings) to predict personal preferences, and thereby provides users high-quality recommendation services, which expose the risk of leakage of user privacy. Differential privacy, as a provable privacy protection framework, has been applied widely to recommendation systems. It is common that different individuals have different levels of privacy requirements on items. However, traditional differential privacy can only provide a uniform level of privacy protection for all users. In this paper, we mainly propose a probabilistic matrix factorization recommendation scheme with personalized differential privacy (PDP-PMF). It aims to meet users' privacy requirements specified at the item-level instead of giving the same level of privacy guarantees for all. We then develop a modified sampling mechanism (with bounded differential privacy) for achieving PDP. We also perform a theoretical analysis of the PDP-PMF scheme and demonstrate the privacy of the PDP-PMF scheme. In addition, we implement the probabilistic matrix factorization schemes both with traditional and with personalized differential privacy (DP-PMF, PDP-PMF) and compare them through a series of experiments. The results show that the PDP-PMF scheme performs well on protecting the privacy of each user and its recommendation quality is much better than the DP-PMF scheme.

* 24 pages, 12 figures, 4 tables 

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Generative Adversarial Networks with Decoder-Encoder Output Noise

Jul 11, 2018
Guoqiang Zhong, Wei Gao, Yongbin Liu, Youzhao Yang

In recent years, research on image generation methods has been developing fast. The auto-encoding variational Bayes method (VAEs) was proposed in 2013, which uses variational inference to learn a latent space from the image database and then generates images using the decoder. The generative adversarial networks (GANs) came out as a promising framework, which uses adversarial training to improve the generative ability of the generator. However, the generated pictures by GANs are generally blurry. The deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs) were then proposed to leverage the quality of generated images. Since the input noise vectors are randomly sampled from a Gaussian distribution, the generator has to map from a whole normal distribution to the images. This makes DCGANs unable to reflect the inherent structure of the training data. In this paper, we propose a novel deep model, called generative adversarial networks with decoder-encoder output noise (DE-GANs), which takes advantage of both the adversarial training and the variational Bayesain inference to improve the performance of image generation. DE-GANs use a pre-trained decoder-encoder architecture to map the random Gaussian noise vectors to informative ones and pass them to the generator of the adversarial networks. Since the decoder-encoder architecture is trained by the same images as the generators, the output vectors could carry the intrinsic distribution information of the original images. Moreover, the loss function of DE-GANs is different from GANs and DCGANs. A hidden-space loss function is added to the adversarial loss function to enhance the robustness of the model. Extensive empirical results show that DE-GANs can accelerate the convergence of the adversarial training process and improve the quality of the generated images.

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A Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm with Angle-Based Selection and Shift-Based Density Estimation

Sep 30, 2017
Zhi-Zhong Liu, Yong Wang, Pei-Qiu Huang

Evolutionary many-objective optimization has been gaining increasing attention from the evolutionary computation research community. Much effort has been devoted to addressing this issue by improving the scalability of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, such as Pareto-based, decomposition-based, and indicator-based approaches. Different from current work, we propose a novel algorithm in this paper called AnD, which consists of an angle-based selection strategy and a shift-based density estimation strategy. These two strategies are employed in the environmental selection to delete the poor individuals one by one. Specifically, the former is devised to find a pair of individuals with the minimum vector angle, which means that these two individuals share the most similar search direction. The latter, which takes both the diversity and convergence into account, is adopted to compare these two individuals and to delete the worse one. AnD has a simple structure, few parameters, and no complicated operators. The performance of AnD is compared with that of seven state-of-the-art many-objective evolutionary algorithms on a variety of benchmark test problems with up to 15 objectives. The experimental results suggest that AnD can achieve highly competitive performance. In addition, we also verify that AnD can be readily extended to solve constrained many-objective optimization problems.

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A PCA-Based Convolutional Network

May 14, 2015
Yanhai Gan, Jun Liu, Junyu Dong, Guoqiang Zhong

In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised deep learning model, called PCA-based Convolutional Network (PCN). The architecture of PCN is composed of several feature extraction stages and a nonlinear output stage. Particularly, each feature extraction stage includes two layers: a convolutional layer and a feature pooling layer. In the convolutional layer, the filter banks are simply learned by PCA. In the nonlinear output stage, binary hashing is applied. For the higher convolutional layers, the filter banks are learned from the feature maps that were obtained in the previous stage. To test PCN, we conducted extensive experiments on some challenging tasks, including handwritten digits recognition, face recognition and texture classification. The results show that PCN performs competitive with or even better than state-of-the-art deep learning models. More importantly, since there is no back propagation for supervised finetuning, PCN is much more efficient than existing deep networks.

* 8 pages,5 figures 

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An Adaptive Framework to Tune the Coordinate Systems in Evolutionary Algorithms

Mar 18, 2017
Zhi-Zhong Liu, Yong Wang, Shengxiang Yang, Ke Tang

In the evolutionary computation research community, the performance of most evolutionary algorithms (EAs) depends strongly on their implemented coordinate system. However, the commonly used coordinate system is fixed and not well suited for different function landscapes, EAs thus might not search efficiently. To overcome this shortcoming, in this paper we propose a framework, named ACoS, to adaptively tune the coordinate systems in EAs. In ACoS, an Eigen coordinate system is established by making use of the cumulative population distribution information, which can be obtained based on a covariance matrix adaptation strategy and an additional archiving mechanism. Since the population distribution information can reflect the features of the function landscape to some extent, EAs in the Eigen coordinate system have the capability to identify the modality of the function landscape. In addition, the Eigen coordinate system is coupled with the original coordinate system, and they are selected according to a probability vector. The probability vector aims to determine the selection ratio of each coordinate system for each individual, and is adaptively updated based on the collected information from the offspring. ACoS has been applied to two of the most popular EA paradigms, i.e., particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), for solving 30 test functions with 30 and 50 dimensions at the 2014 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. The experimental studies demonstrate its effectiveness.

* This paper provides a new point of view toward how to describe an evolutionary operator in the original coordinate system, and also offers a convenient transformation from an evolutionary operator in the original coordinate system to the corresponding evolutionary operator in the Eigen coordinate system 

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A Closer Look at Data Bias in Neural Extractive Summarization Models

Sep 30, 2019
Ming Zhong, Danqing Wang, Pengfei Liu, Xipeng Qiu, Xuanjing Huang

In this paper, we take stock of the current state of summarization datasets and explore how different factors of datasets influence the generalization behaviour of neural extractive summarization models. Specifically, we first propose several properties of datasets, which matter for the generalization of summarization models. Then we build the connection between priors residing in datasets and model designs, analyzing how different properties of datasets influence the choices of model structure design and training methods. Finally, by taking a typical dataset as an example, we rethink the process of the model design based on the experience of the above analysis. We demonstrate that when we have a deep understanding of the characteristics of datasets, a simple approach can bring significant improvements to the existing state-of-the-art model.A

* EMNLP 2019 Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization 

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Searching for Effective Neural Extractive Summarization: What Works and What's Next

Jul 08, 2019
Ming Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Danqing Wang, Xipeng Qiu, Xuanjing Huang

The recent years have seen remarkable success in the use of deep neural networks on text summarization. However, there is no clear understanding of \textit{why} they perform so well, or \textit{how} they might be improved. In this paper, we seek to better understand how neural extractive summarization systems could benefit from different types of model architectures, transferable knowledge and learning schemas. Additionally, we find an effective way to improve current frameworks and achieve the state-of-the-art result on CNN/DailyMail by a large margin based on our observations and analyses. Hopefully, our work could provide more clues for future research on extractive summarization.

* Accepted by ACL 2019 (oral); Project homepage: 

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Differentiable Linearized ADMM

May 15, 2019
Xingyu Xie, Jianlong Wu, Zhisheng Zhong, Guangcan Liu, Zhouchen Lin

Recently, a number of learning-based optimization methods that combine data-driven architectures with the classical optimization algorithms have been proposed and explored, showing superior empirical performance in solving various ill-posed inverse problems, but there is still a scarcity of rigorous analysis about the convergence behaviors of learning-based optimization. In particular, most existing analyses are specific to unconstrained problems but cannot apply to the more general cases where some variables of interest are subject to certain constraints. In this paper, we propose Differentiable Linearized ADMM (D-LADMM) for solving the problems with linear constraints. Specifically, D-LADMM is a K-layer LADMM inspired deep neural network, which is obtained by firstly introducing some learnable weights in the classical Linearized ADMM algorithm and then generalizing the proximal operator to some learnable activation function. Notably, we rigorously prove that there exist a set of learnable parameters for D-LADMM to generate globally converged solutions, and we show that those desired parameters can be attained by training D-LADMM in a proper way. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to provide the convergence analysis for the learning-based optimization method on constrained problems.

* Accepted by ICML2019 

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An End-to-End Joint Unsupervised Learning of Deep Model and Pseudo-Classes for Remote Sensing Scene Representation

Mar 18, 2019
Zhiqiang Gong, Ping Zhong, Weidong Hu, Fang Liu, Bingwei Hui

This work develops a novel end-to-end deep unsupervised learning method based on convolutional neural network (CNN) with pseudo-classes for remote sensing scene representation. First, we introduce center points as the centers of the pseudo classes and the training samples can be allocated with pseudo labels based on the center points. Therefore, the CNN model, which is used to extract features from the scenes, can be trained supervised with the pseudo labels. Moreover, a pseudo-center loss is developed to decrease the variance between the samples and the corresponding pseudo center point. The pseudo-center loss is important since it can update both the center points with the training samples and the CNN model with the center points in the training process simultaneously. Finally, joint learning of the pseudo-center loss and the pseudo softmax loss which is formulated with the samples and the pseudo labels is developed for unsupervised remote sensing scene representation to obtain discriminative representations from the scenes. Experiments are conducted over two commonly used remote sensing scene datasets to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method when compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

* Submitted to IJCNN 2019 

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VMAV-C: A Deep Attention-based Reinforcement Learning Algorithm for Model-based Control

Dec 24, 2018
Xingxing Liang, Qi Wang, Yanghe Feng, Zhong Liu, Jincai Huang

Recent breakthroughs in Go play and strategic games have witnessed the great potential of reinforcement learning in intelligently scheduling in uncertain environment, but some bottlenecks are also encountered when we generalize this paradigm to universal complex tasks. Among them, the low efficiency of data utilization in model-free reinforcement algorithms is of great concern. In contrast, the model-based reinforcement learning algorithms can reveal underlying dynamics in learning environments and seldom suffer the data utilization problem. To address the problem, a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm with attention mechanism embedded is proposed as an extension of World Models in this paper. We learn the environment model through Mixture Density Network Recurrent Network(MDN-RNN) for agents to interact, with combinations of variational auto-encoder(VAE) and attention incorporated in state value estimates during the process of learning policy. In this way, agent can learn optimal policies through less interactions with actual environment, and final experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model in control problem.

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AutoML from Service Provider's Perspective: Multi-device, Multi-tenant Model Selection with GP-EI

Oct 28, 2018
Chen Yu, Bojan Karlas, Jie Zhong, Ce Zhang, Ji Liu

AutoML has become a popular service that is provided by most leading cloud service providers today. In this paper, we focus on the AutoML problem from the \emph{service provider's perspective}, motivated by the following practical consideration: When an AutoML service needs to serve {\em multiple users} with {\em multiple devices} at the same time, how can we allocate these devices to users in an efficient way? We focus on GP-EI, one of the most popular algorithms for automatic model selection and hyperparameter tuning, used by systems such as Google Vizer. The technical contribution of this paper is the first multi-device, multi-tenant algorithm for GP-EI that is aware of \emph{multiple} computation devices and multiple users sharing the same set of computation devices. Theoretically, given $N$ users and $M$ devices, we obtain a regret bound of $O((\text{\bf {MIU}}(T,K) + M)\frac{N^2}{M})$, where $\text{\bf {MIU}}(T,K)$ refers to the maximal incremental uncertainty up to time $T$ for the covariance matrix $K$. Empirically, we evaluate our algorithm on two applications of automatic model selection, and show that our algorithm significantly outperforms the strategy of serving users independently. Moreover, when multiple computation devices are available, we achieve near-linear speedup when the number of users is much larger than the number of devices.

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Using Sentiment Representation Learning to Enhance Gender Classification for User Profiling

Oct 09, 2018
Yunpei Zheng, Lin Li, Luo Zhong, Jianwei Zhang, Jinhang Liu

User profiling means exploiting the technology of machine learning to predict attributes of users, such as demographic attributes, hobby attributes, preference attributes, etc. It's a powerful data support of precision marketing. Existing methods mainly study network behavior, personal preferences, post texts to build user profile. Through our data analysis of micro-blog, we find that females show more positive and have richer emotions than males in online social platform. This difference is very conducive to the distinction between genders. Therefore, we argue that sentiment context is important as well for user profiling.This paper focuses on exploiting microblog user posts to predict one of the demographic labels: gender. We propose a Sentiment Representation Learning based Multi-Layer Perceptron(SRL-MLP) model to classify gender. First we build a sentiment polarity classifier in advance by training Long Short-Term Memory(LSTM) model on e-commerce review corpus. Next we transfer sentiment representation to a basic MLP network. Last we conduct experiments on gender classification by sentiment representation. Experimental results show that our approach can improve gender classification accuracy by 5.53\%, from 84.20\% to 89.73\%.

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