Models, code, and papers for "autonomous cars":

Personal space of autonomous car's passengers sitting in the driver's seat

May 09, 2018
Eleonore Ferrier-Barbut, Dominique Vaufreydaz, Jean-Alix David, Jérôme Lussereau, Anne Spalanzani

This article deals with the specific context of an autonomous car navigating in an urban center within a shared space between pedestrians and cars. The driver delegates the control to the autonomous system while remaining seated in the driver's seat. The proposed study aims at giving a first insight into the definition of human perception of space applied to vehicles by testing the existence of a personal space around the car.It aims at measuring proxemic information about the driver's comfort zone in such conditions.Proxemics, or human perception of space, has been largely explored when applied to humans or to robots, leading to the concept of personal space, but poorly when applied to vehicles. In this article, we highlight the existence and the characteristics of a zone of comfort around the car which is not correlated to the risk of a collision between the car and other road users. Our experiment includes 19 volunteers using a virtual reality headset to look at 30 scenarios filmed in 360{\textdegree} from the point of view of a passenger sitting in the driver's seat of an autonomous car.They were asked to say "stop" when they felt discomfort visualizing the scenarios.As said, the scenarios voluntarily avoid collision effect as we do not want to measure fear but discomfort.The scenarios involve one or three pedestrians walking past the car at different distances from the wings of the car, relative to the direction of motion of the car, on both sides. The car is either static or moving straight forward at different speeds.The results indicate the existence of a comfort zone around the car in which intrusion causes discomfort.The size of the comfort zone is sensitive neither to the side of the car where the pedestrian passes nor to the number of pedestrians. In contrast, the feeling of discomfort is relative to the car's motion (static or moving).Another outcome from this study is an illustration of the usage of first person 360{\textdegree} video and a virtual reality headset to evaluate feelings of a passenger within an autonomous car.

* The 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV'18), Jun 2018, Changshu, Suzhou, China 

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What might matter in autonomous cars adoption: first person versus third person scenarios

Oct 17, 2018
Eva Zackova, Jan Romportl

The discussion between the automotive industry, governments, ethicists, policy makers and general public about autonomous cars' moral agency is widening, and therefore we see the need to bring more insight into what meta-factors might actually influence the outcomes of such discussions, surveys and plebiscites. In our study, we focus on the psychological (personality traits), practical (active driving experience), gender and rhetoric/framing factors that might impact and even determine respondents' a priori preferences of autonomous cars' operation. We conducted an online survey (N=430) to collect data that show that the third person scenario is less biased than the first person scenario when presenting ethical dilemma related to autonomous cars. According to our analysis, gender bias should be explored in more extensive future studies as well. We recommend any participatory technology assessment discourse to use the third person scenario and to direct attention to the way any autonomous car related debate is introduced, especially in terms of linguistic and communication aspects and gender.


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Courteous Autonomous Cars

Aug 16, 2018
Liting Sun, Wei Zhan, Masayoshi Tomizuka, Anca D. Dragan

Typically, autonomous cars optimize for a combination of safety, efficiency, and driving quality. But as we get better at this optimization, we start seeing behavior go from too conservative to too aggressive. The car's behavior exposes the incentives we provide in its cost function. In this work, we argue for cars that are not optimizing a purely selfish cost, but also try to be courteous to other interactive drivers. We formalize courtesy as a term in the objective that measures the increase in another driver's cost induced by the autonomous car's behavior. Such a courtesy term enables the robot car to be aware of possible irrationality of the human behavior, and plan accordingly. We analyze the effect of courtesy in a variety of scenarios. We find, for example, that courteous robot cars leave more space when merging in front of a human driver. Moreover, we find that such a courtesy term can help explain real human driver behavior on the NGSIM dataset.

* International Conference on Intelligent Robots (IROS) 2018 

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DeepTest: Automated Testing of Deep-Neural-Network-driven Autonomous Cars

Mar 20, 2018
Yuchi Tian, Kexin Pei, Suman Jana, Baishakhi Ray

Recent advances in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have led to the development of DNN-driven autonomous cars that, using sensors like camera, LiDAR, etc., can drive without any human intervention. Most major manufacturers including Tesla, GM, Ford, BMW, and Waymo/Google are working on building and testing different types of autonomous vehicles. The lawmakers of several US states including California, Texas, and New York have passed new legislation to fast-track the process of testing and deployment of autonomous vehicles on their roads. However, despite their spectacular progress, DNNs, just like traditional software, often demonstrate incorrect or unexpected corner case behaviors that can lead to potentially fatal collisions. Several such real-world accidents involving autonomous cars have already happened including one which resulted in a fatality. Most existing testing techniques for DNN-driven vehicles are heavily dependent on the manual collection of test data under different driving conditions which become prohibitively expensive as the number of test conditions increases. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate DeepTest, a systematic testing tool for automatically detecting erroneous behaviors of DNN-driven vehicles that can potentially lead to fatal crashes. First, our tool is designed to automatically generated test cases leveraging real-world changes in driving conditions like rain, fog, lighting conditions, etc. DeepTest systematically explores different parts of the DNN logic by generating test inputs that maximize the numbers of activated neurons. DeepTest found thousands of erroneous behaviors under different realistic driving conditions (e.g., blurring, rain, fog, etc.) many of which lead to potentially fatal crashes in three top performing DNNs in the Udacity self-driving car challenge.


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DARTS: Deceiving Autonomous Cars with Toxic Signs

May 31, 2018
Chawin Sitawarin, Arjun Nitin Bhagoji, Arsalan Mosenia, Mung Chiang, Prateek Mittal

Sign recognition is an integral part of autonomous cars. Any misclassification of traffic signs can potentially lead to a multitude of disastrous consequences, ranging from a life-threatening accident to even a large-scale interruption of transportation services relying on autonomous cars. In this paper, we propose and examine security attacks against sign recognition systems for Deceiving Autonomous caRs with Toxic Signs (we call the proposed attacks DARTS). In particular, we introduce two novel methods to create these toxic signs. First, we propose Out-of-Distribution attacks, which expand the scope of adversarial examples by enabling the adversary to generate these starting from an arbitrary point in the image space compared to prior attacks which are restricted to existing training/test data (In-Distribution). Second, we present the Lenticular Printing attack, which relies on an optical phenomenon to deceive the traffic sign recognition system. We extensively evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed attacks in both virtual and real-world settings and consider both white-box and black-box threat models. Our results demonstrate that the proposed attacks are successful under both settings and threat models. We further show that Out-of-Distribution attacks can outperform In-Distribution attacks on classifiers defended using the adversarial training defense, exposing a new attack vector for these defenses.

* Submitted to ACM CCS 2018; Extended version of [1801.02780] Rogue Signs: Deceiving Traffic Sign Recognition with Malicious Ads and Logos 

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Do You Want Your Autonomous Car To Drive Like You?

Feb 05, 2018
Chandrayee Basu, Qian Yang, David Hungerman, Mukesh Singhal, Anca D. Dragan

With progress in enabling autonomous cars to drive safely on the road, it is time to start asking how they should be driving. A common answer is that they should be adopting their users' driving style. This makes the assumption that users want their autonomous cars to drive like they drive - aggressive drivers want aggressive cars, defensive drivers want defensive cars. In this paper, we put that assumption to the test. We find that users tend to prefer a significantly more defensive driving style than their own. Interestingly, they prefer the style they think is their own, even though their actual driving style tends to be more aggressive. We also find that preferences do depend on the specific driving scenario, opening the door for new ways of learning driving style preference.

* 8 pages, 7 figures, HRI 2017 

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Road Context-aware Intrusion Detection System for Autonomous Cars

Aug 02, 2019
Jingxuan Jiang, Chundong Wang, Sudipta Chattopadhyay, Wei Zhang

Security is of primary importance to vehicles. The viability of performing remote intrusions onto the in-vehicle network has been manifested. In regard to unmanned autonomous cars, limited work has been done to detect intrusions for them while existing intrusion detection systems (IDSs) embrace limitations against strong adversaries. In this paper, we consider the very nature of autonomous car and leverage the road context to build a novel IDS, named Road context-aware IDS (RAIDS). When a computer-controlled car is driving through continuous roads, road contexts and genuine frames transmitted on the car's in-vehicle network should resemble a regular and intelligible pattern. RAIDS hence employs a lightweight machine learning model to extract road contexts from sensory information (e.g., camera images and distance sensor values) that are used to generate control signals for maneuvering the car. With such ongoing road context, RAIDS validates corresponding frames observed on the in-vehicle network. Anomalous frames that substantially deviate from road context will be discerned as intrusions. We have implemented a prototype of RAIDS with neural networks, and conducted experiments on a Raspberry Pi with extensive datasets and meaningful intrusion cases. Evaluations show that RAIDS significantly outperforms state-of-the-art IDS without using road context by up to 99.9% accuracy and short response time.

* This manuscript presents an intrusion detection system that makes use of road context for autonomous cars 

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Learning How to Dynamically Route Autonomous Vehicles on Shared Roads

Sep 09, 2019
Daniel A. Lazar, Erdem Bıyık, Dorsa Sadigh, Ramtin Pedarsani

Road congestion induces significant costs across the world, and road network disturbances, such as traffic accidents, can cause highly congested traffic patterns. If a planner had control over the routing of all vehicles in the network, they could easily reverse this effect. In a more realistic scenario, we consider a planner that controls autonomous cars, which are a fraction of all present cars. We study a dynamic routing game, in which the route choices of autonomous cars can be controlled and the human drivers react selfishly and dynamically to autonomous cars' actions. As the problem is prohibitively large, we use deep reinforcement learning to learn a policy for controlling the autonomous vehicles. This policy influences human drivers to route themselves in such a way that minimizes congestion on the network. To gauge the effectiveness of our learned policies, we establish theoretical results characterizing equilibria on a network of parallel roads and empirically compare the learned policy results with best possible equilibria. Moreover, we show that in the absence of these policies, high demands and network perturbations would result in large congestion, whereas using the policy greatly decreases the travel times by minimizing the congestion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that employs deep reinforcement learning to reduce congestion by influencing humans' routing decisions in mixed-autonomy traffic.


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Autonomous Driving without a Burden: View from Outside with Elevated LiDAR

Oct 31, 2018
Nalin Jayaweera, Nandana Rajatheva, Matti Latva-aho

The current autonomous driving architecture places a heavy burden in signal processing for the graphics processing units (GPUs) in the car. This directly translates into battery drain and lower energy efficiency, crucial factors in electric vehicles. This is due to the high bit rate of the captured video and other sensing inputs, mainly due to Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor at the top of the car which is an essential feature in autonomous vehicles. LiDAR is needed to obtain a high precision map for the vehicle AI to make relevant decisions. However, this is still a quite restricted view from the car. This is the same even in the case of cars without a LiDAR such as Tesla. The existing LiDARs and the cameras have limited horizontal and vertical fields of visions. In all cases it can be argued that precision is lower, given the smaller map generated. This also results in the accumulation of a large amount of data in the order of several TBs in a day, the storage of which becomes challenging. If we are to reduce the effort for the processing units inside the car, we need to uplink the data to edge or an appropriately placed cloud. However, the required data rates in the order of several Gbps are difficult to be met even with the advent of 5G. Therefore, we propose to have a coordinated set of LiDAR's outside at an elevation which can provide an integrated view with a much larger field of vision (FoV) to a centralized decision making body which then sends the required control actions to the vehicles with a lower bit rate in the downlink and with the required latency. The calculations we have based on industry standard equipment from several manufacturers show that this is not just a concept but a feasible system which can be implemented.The proposed system can play a supportive role with existing autonomous vehicle architecture and it is easily applicable in an urban area.


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Verisimilar Percept Sequences Tests for Autonomous Driving Intelligent Agent Assessment

May 07, 2018
Thomio Watanabe, Denis Wolf

The autonomous car technology promises to replace human drivers with safer driving systems. But although autonomous cars can become safer than human drivers this is a long process that is going to be refined over time. Before these vehicles are deployed on urban roads a minimum safety level must be assured. Since the autonomous car technology is still under development there is no standard methodology to evaluate such systems. It is important to completely understand the technology that is being developed to design efficient means to evaluate it. In this paper we assume safety-critical systems reliability as a safety measure. We model an autonomous road vehicle as an intelligent agent and we approach its evaluation from an artificial intelligence perspective. Our focus is the evaluation of perception and decision making systems and also to propose a systematic method to evaluate their integration in the vehicle. We identify critical aspects of the data dependency from the artificial intelligence state of the art models and we also propose procedures to reproduce them.


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Social Cohesion in Autonomous Driving

Aug 27, 2018
Nicholas C. Landolfi, Anca D. Dragan

Autonomous cars can perform poorly for many reasons. They may have perception issues, incorrect dynamics models, be unaware of obscure rules of human traffic systems, or follow certain rules too conservatively. Regardless of the exact failure mode of the car, often human drivers around the car are behaving correctly. For example, even if the car does not know that it should pull over when an ambulance races by, other humans on the road will know and will pull over. We propose to make socially cohesive cars that leverage the behavior of nearby human drivers to act in ways that are safer and more socially acceptable. The simple intuition behind our algorithm is that if all the humans are consistently behaving in a particular way, then the autonomous car probably should too. We analyze the performance of our algorithm in a variety of scenarios and conduct a user study to assess people's attitudes towards socially cohesive cars. We find that people are surprisingly tolerant of mistakes that cohesive cars might make in order to get the benefits of driving in a car with a safer, or even just more socially acceptable behavior.


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Behavior Planning of Autonomous Cars with Social Perception

May 02, 2019
Liting Sun, Wei Zhan, Ching-Yao Chan, Masayoshi Tomizuka

Autonomous cars have to navigate in dynamic environment which can be full of uncertainties. The uncertainties can come either from sensor limitations such as occlusions and limited sensor range, or from probabilistic prediction of other road participants, or from unknown social behavior in a new area. To safely and efficiently drive in the presence of these uncertainties, the decision-making and planning modules of autonomous cars should intelligently utilize all available information and appropriately tackle the uncertainties so that proper driving strategies can be generated. In this paper, we propose a social perception scheme which treats all road participants as distributed sensors in a sensor network. By observing the individual behaviors as well as the group behaviors, uncertainties of the three types can be updated uniformly in a belief space. The updated beliefs from the social perception are then explicitly incorporated into a probabilistic planning framework based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The cost function of the MPC is learned via inverse reinforcement learning (IRL). Such an integrated probabilistic planning module with socially enhanced perception enables the autonomous vehicles to generate behaviors which are defensive but not overly conservative, and socially compatible. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is verified in simulation on an representative scenario with sensor occlusions.

* To be appear on the 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV2019) 

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Self-Driving Cars: A Survey

Jan 14, 2019
Claudine Badue, Rânik Guidolini, Raphael Vivacqua Carneiro, Pedro Azevedo, Vinicius Brito Cardoso, Avelino Forechi, Luan Ferreira Reis Jesus, Rodrigo Ferreira Berriel, Thiago Meireles Paixão, Filipe Mutz, Thiago Oliveira-Santos, Alberto Ferreira De Souza

We survey research on self-driving cars published in the literature focusing on autonomous cars developed since the DARPA challenges, which are equipped with an autonomy system that can be categorized as SAE level 3 or higher. The architecture of the autonomy system of self-driving cars is typically organized into the perception system and the decision-making system. The perception system is generally divided into many subsystems responsible for tasks such as self-driving-car localization, static obstacles mapping, moving obstacles detection and tracking, road mapping, traffic signalization detection and recognition, among others. The decision-making system is commonly partitioned as well into many subsystems responsible for tasks such as route planning, path planning, behavior selection, motion planning, and control. In this survey, we present the typical architecture of the autonomy system of self-driving cars. We also review research on relevant methods for perception and decision making. Furthermore, we present a detailed description of the architecture of the autonomy system of the UFES's car, IARA. Finally, we list prominent autonomous research cars developed by technology companies and reported in the media.


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Traffic Light Recognition Using Deep Learning and Prior Maps for Autonomous Cars

Jun 04, 2019
Lucas C. Possatti, Rânik Guidolini, Vinicius B. Cardoso, Rodrigo F. Berriel, Thiago M. Paixão, Claudine Badue, Alberto F. De Souza, Thiago Oliveira-Santos

Autonomous terrestrial vehicles must be capable of perceiving traffic lights and recognizing their current states to share the streets with human drivers. Most of the time, human drivers can easily identify the relevant traffic lights. To deal with this issue, a common solution for autonomous cars is to integrate recognition with prior maps. However, additional solution is required for the detection and recognition of the traffic light. Deep learning techniques have showed great performance and power of generalization including traffic related problems. Motivated by the advances in deep learning, some recent works leveraged some state-of-the-art deep detectors to locate (and further recognize) traffic lights from 2D camera images. However, none of them combine the power of the deep learning-based detectors with prior maps to recognize the state of the relevant traffic lights. Based on that, this work proposes to integrate the power of deep learning-based detection with the prior maps used by our car platform IARA (acronym for Intelligent Autonomous Robotic Automobile) to recognize the relevant traffic lights of predefined routes. The process is divided in two phases: an offline phase for map construction and traffic lights annotation; and an online phase for traffic light recognition and identification of the relevant ones. The proposed system was evaluated on five test cases (routes) in the city of Vit\'oria, each case being composed of a video sequence and a prior map with the relevant traffic lights for the route. Results showed that the proposed technique is able to correctly identify the relevant traffic light along the trajectory.

* Accepted in 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 

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Self Driving RC Car using Behavioral Cloning

Oct 10, 2019
Aliasgar Haji, Priyam Shah, Srinivas Bijoor

Self Driving Car technology is a vehicle that guides itself without human conduction. The first truly autonomous cars appeared in the 1980s with projects funded by DARPA( Defense Advance Research Project Agency ). Since then a lot has changed with the improvements in the fields of Computer Vision and Machine Learning. We have used the concept of behavioral cloning to convert a normal RC model car into an autonomous car using Deep Learning technology

* 4 pages, 8 figures 

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GRIP: Graph-based Interaction-aware Trajectory Prediction

Jul 17, 2019
Xin Li, Xiaowen Ying, Mooi Choo Chuah

Nowadays, autonomous driving cars have become commercially available. However, the safety of a self-driving car is still a challenging problem that has not been well studied. Motion prediction is one of the core functions of an autonomous driving car. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme called GRIP which is designed to predict trajectories for traffic agents around an autonomous car efficiently. GRIP uses a graph to represent the interactions of close objects, applies several graph convolutional blocks to extract features, and subsequently uses an encoder-decoder long short-term memory (LSTM) model to make predictions. The experimental results on two well-known public datasets show that our proposed model improves the prediction accuracy of the state-of-the-art solution by 30%. The prediction error of GRIP is one meter shorter than existing schemes. Such an improvement can help autonomous driving cars avoid many traffic accidents. In addition, the proposed GRIP runs 5x faster than state-of-the-art schemes.

* Accepted by ITSC 2019 

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Towards Safety-Aware Computing System Design in Autonomous Vehicles

May 22, 2019
Hengyu Zhao, Yubo Zhang, Pingfan Meng, Hui Shi, Li Erran Li, Tiancheng Lou, Jishen Zhao

Recently, autonomous driving development ignited competition among car makers and technical corporations. Low-level automation cars are already commercially available. But high automated vehicles where the vehicle drives by itself without human monitoring is still at infancy. Such autonomous vehicles (AVs) rely on the computing system in the car to to interpret the environment and make driving decisions. Therefore, computing system design is essential particularly in enhancing the attainment of driving safety. However, to our knowledge, no clear guideline exists so far regarding safety-aware AV computing system and architecture design. To understand the safety requirement of AV computing system, we performed a field study by running industrial Level-4 autonomous driving fleets in various locations, road conditions, and traffic patterns. The field study indicates that traditional computing system performance metrics, such as tail latency, average latency, maximum latency, and timeout, cannot fully satisfy the safety requirement for AV computing system design. To address this issue, we propose a `safety score' as a primary metric for measuring the level of safety in AV computing system design. Furthermore, we propose a perception latency model, which helps architects estimate the safety score of given architecture and system design without physically testing them in an AV. We demonstrate the use of our safety score and latency model, by developing and evaluating a safety-aware AV computing system computation hardware resource management scheme.


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Is it Safe to Drive? An Overview of Factors, Challenges, and Datasets for Driveability Assessment in Autonomous Driving

Nov 27, 2018
Junyao Guo, Unmesh Kurup, Mohak Shah

With recent advances in learning algorithms and hardware development, autonomous cars have shown promise when operating in structured environments under good driving conditions. However, for complex, cluttered and unseen environments with high uncertainty, autonomous driving systems still frequently demonstrate erroneous or unexpected behaviors, that could lead to catastrophic outcomes. Autonomous vehicles should ideally adapt to driving conditions; while this can be achieved through multiple routes, it would be beneficial as a first step to be able to characterize Driveability in some quantified form. To this end, this paper aims to create a framework for investigating different factors that can impact driveability. Also, one of the main mechanisms to adapt autonomous driving systems to any driving condition is to be able to learn and generalize from representative scenarios. The machine learning algorithms that currently do so learn predominantly in a supervised manner and consequently need sufficient data for robust and efficient learning. Therefore, we also perform a comparative overview of 45 public driving datasets that enable learning and publish this dataset index at https://sites.google.com/view/driveability-survey-datasets. Specifically, we categorize the datasets according to use cases, and highlight the datasets that capture complicated and hazardous driving conditions which can be better used for training robust driving models. Furthermore, by discussions of what driving scenarios are not covered by existing public datasets and what driveability factors need more investigation and data acquisition, this paper aims to encourage both targeted dataset collection and the proposal of novel driveability metrics that enhance the robustness of autonomous cars in adverse environments.


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Autonomous Cars: Vision based Steering Wheel Angle Estimation

Jan 30, 2019
Kemal Alkin Gunbay, Mert Arikan, Mehmet Turkan

Machine learning models, which are frequently used in self-driving cars, are trained by matching the captured images of the road and the measured angle of the steering wheel. The angle of the steering wheel is generally fetched from steering angle sensor, which is tightly-coupled to the physical aspects of the vehicle at hand. Therefore, a model-agnostic autonomous car-kit is very difficult to be developed and autonomous vehicles need more training data. The proposed vision based steering angle estimation system argues a new approach which basically matches the images of the road captured by an outdoor camera and the images of the steering wheel from an onboard camera, avoiding the burden of collecting model-dependent training data and the use of any other electromechanical hardware.

* 5 pages, 6 figures 

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