Research papers and code for "photo style transfer":
Recent studies using deep neural networks have shown remarkable success in style transfer especially for artistic and photo-realistic images. However, the approaches using global feature correlations fail to capture small, intricate textures and maintain correct texture scales of the artworks, and the approaches based on local patches are defective on global effect. In this paper, we present a novel feature pyramid fusion neural network, dubbed GLStyleNet, which sufficiently takes into consideration multi-scale and multi-level pyramid features by best aggregating layers across a VGG network, and performs style transfer hierarchically with multiple losses of different scales. Our proposed method retains high-frequency pixel information and low frequency construct information of images from two aspects: loss function constraint and feature fusion. Our approach is not only flexible to adjust the trade-off between content and style, but also controllable between global and local. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method can transfer not just large-scale, obvious style cues but also subtle, exquisite ones, and dramatically improves the quality of style transfer. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on portrait style transfer, artistic style transfer, photo-realistic style transfer and Chinese ancient painting style transfer tasks. Experimental results indicate that our unified approach improves image style transfer quality over previous state-of-the-art methods, while also accelerating the whole process in a certain extent. Our code is available at https://github.com/EndyWon/GLStyleNet.

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With the rapid development of social network and multimedia technology, customized image and video stylization has been widely used for various social-media applications. In this paper, we explore the problem of exemplar-based photo style transfer, which provides a flexible and convenient way to invoke fantastic visual impression. Rather than investigating some fixed artistic patterns to represent certain styles as was done in some previous works, our work emphasizes styles related to a series of visual effects in the photograph, e.g. color, tone, and contrast. We propose a photo stylistic brush, an automatic robust style transfer approach based on Superpixel-based BIpartite Graph (SuperBIG). A two-step bipartite graph algorithm with different granularity levels is employed to aggregate pixels into superpixels and find their correspondences. In the first step, with the extracted hierarchical features, a bipartite graph is constructed to describe the content similarity for pixel partition to produce superpixels. In the second step, superpixels in the input/reference image are rematched to form a new superpixel-based bipartite graph, and superpixel-level correspondences are generated by a bipartite matching. Finally, the refined correspondence guides SuperBIG to perform the transformation in a decorrelated color space. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for transferring various styles of exemplar images, even for some challenging cases, such as night images.

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Photorealism is a complex concept that cannot easily be formulated mathematically. Deep Photo Style Transfer is an attempt to transfer the style of a reference image to a content image while preserving its photorealism. This is achieved by introducing a constraint that prevents distortions in the content image and by applying the style transfer independently for semantically different parts of the images. In addition, an automated segmentation process is presented that consists of a neural network based segmentation method followed by a semantic grouping step. To further improve the results a measure for image aesthetics is used and elaborated. If the content and the style image are sufficiently similar, the result images look very realistic. With the automation of the image segmentation the pipeline becomes completely independent from any user interaction, which allows for new applications.

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Given a random pair of images, an arbitrary style transfer method extracts the feel from the reference image to synthesize an output based on the look of the other content image. Recent arbitrary style transfer methods transfer second order statistics from reference image onto content image via a multiplication between content image features and a transformation matrix, which is computed from features with a pre-determined algorithm. These algorithms either require computationally expensive operations, or fail to model the feature covariance and produce artifacts in synthesized images. Generalized from these methods, in this work, we derive the form of transformation matrix theoretically and present an arbitrary style transfer approach that learns the transformation matrix with a feed-forward network. Our algorithm is highly efficient yet allows a flexible combination of multi-level styles while preserving content affinity during style transfer process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on four tasks: artistic style transfer, video and photo-realistic style transfer as well as domain adaptation, including comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods.

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Style transfer is a problem of rendering image with some content in the style of another image, for example a family photo in the style of a painting of some famous artist. The drawback of classical style transfer algorithm is that it imposes style uniformly on all parts of the content image, which perturbs central objects on the content image, such as faces or text, and makes them unrecognizable. This work proposes a novel style transfer algorithm which automatically detects central objects on the content image, generates spatial importance mask and imposes style non-uniformly: central objects are stylized less to preserve their recognizability and other parts of the image are stylized as usual to preserve the style. Three methods of automatic central object detection are proposed and evaluated qualitatively and via a user evaluation study. Both comparisons demonstrate higher quality of stylization compared to the classical style transfer method.

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Chinese traditional painting is one of the most historical artworks in the world. It is very popular in Eastern and Southeast Asia due to being aesthetically appealing. Compared with western artistic painting, it is usually more visually abstract and textureless. Recently, neural network based style transfer methods have shown promising and appealing results which are mainly focused on western painting. It remains a challenging problem to preserve abstraction in neural style transfer. In this paper, we present a Neural Abstract Style Transfer method for Chinese traditional painting. It learns to preserve abstraction and other style jointly end-to-end via a novel MXDoG-guided filter (Modified version of the eXtended Difference-of-Gaussians) and three fully differentiable loss terms. To the best of our knowledge, there is little work study on neural style transfer of Chinese traditional painting. To promote research on this direction, we collect a new dataset with diverse photo-realistic images and Chinese traditional paintings. In experiments, the proposed method shows more appealing stylized results in transferring the style of Chinese traditional painting than state-of-the-art neural style transfer methods.

* Conference: ACCV 2018. Project Page: https://github.com/lbsswu/Chinese_style_transfer
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The work by Gatys et al. [1] recently showed a neural style algorithm that can produce an image in the style of another image. Some further works introduced various improvements regarding generalization, quality and efficiency, but each of them was mostly focused on styles such as paintings, abstract images or photo-realistic style. In this paper, we present a comparison of how state-of-the-art style transfer methods cope with transferring various comic styles on different images. We select different combinations of Adaptive Instance Normalization [11] and Universal Style Transfer [16] models and confront them to find their advantages and disadvantages in terms of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Finally, we present the results of a survey conducted on over 100 people that aims at validating the evaluation results in a real-life application of comic style transfer.

* 10 pages
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Universal style transfer is an image editing task that renders an input content image using the visual style of arbitrary reference images, including both artistic and photorealistic stylization. Given a pair of images as the source of content and the reference of style, existing solutions usually first train an auto-encoder (AE) to reconstruct the image using deep features and then embeds pre-defined style transfer modules into the AE reconstruction procedure to transfer the style of the reconstructed image through modifying the deep features. While existing methods typically need multiple rounds of time-consuming AE reconstruction for better stylization, our work intends to design novel neural network architectures on top of AE for fast style transfer with fewer artifacts and distortions all in one pass of end-to-end inference. To this end, we propose two network architectures named ArtNet and PhotoNet to improve artistic and photo-realistic stylization, respectively. Extensive experiments demonstrate that ArtNet generates images with fewer artifacts and distortions against the state-of-the-art artistic transfer algorithms, while PhotoNet improves the photorealistic stylization results by creating sharp images faithfully preserving rich details of the input content. Moreover, ArtNet and PhotoNet can achieve 3X to 100X speed-up over the state-of-the-art algorithms, which is a major advantage for large content images.

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We propose a new technique for visual attribute transfer across images that may have very different appearance but have perceptually similar semantic structure. By visual attribute transfer, we mean transfer of visual information (such as color, tone, texture, and style) from one image to another. For example, one image could be that of a painting or a sketch while the other is a photo of a real scene, and both depict the same type of scene. Our technique finds semantically-meaningful dense correspondences between two input images. To accomplish this, it adapts the notion of "image analogy" with features extracted from a Deep Convolutional Neutral Network for matching; we call our technique Deep Image Analogy. A coarse-to-fine strategy is used to compute the nearest-neighbor field for generating the results. We validate the effectiveness of our proposed method in a variety of cases, including style/texture transfer, color/style swap, sketch/painting to photo, and time lapse.

* Accepted by SIGGRAPH 2017
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This paper introduces a deep-learning approach to photographic style transfer that handles a large variety of image content while faithfully transferring the reference style. Our approach builds upon the recent work on painterly transfer that separates style from the content of an image by considering different layers of a neural network. However, as is, this approach is not suitable for photorealistic style transfer. Even when both the input and reference images are photographs, the output still exhibits distortions reminiscent of a painting. Our contribution is to constrain the transformation from the input to the output to be locally affine in colorspace, and to express this constraint as a custom fully differentiable energy term. We show that this approach successfully suppresses distortion and yields satisfying photorealistic style transfers in a broad variety of scenarios, including transfer of the time of day, weather, season, and artistic edits.

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This paper employs case-based reasoning (CBR) to capture the personal styles of individual artists and generate the human facial portraits from photos accordingly. For each human artist to be mimicked, a series of cases are firstly built-up from her/his exemplars of source facial photo and hand-drawn sketch, and then its stylization for facial photo is transformed as a style-transferring process of iterative refinement by looking-for and applying best-fit cases in a sense of style optimization. Two models, fitness evaluation model and parameter estimation model, are learned for case retrieval and adaptation respectively from these cases. The fitness evaluation model is to decide which case is best-fitted to the sketching of current interest, and the parameter estimation model is to automate case adaptation. The resultant sketch is synthesized progressively with an iterative loop of retrieval and adaptation of candidate cases until the desired aesthetic style is achieved. To explore the effectiveness and advantages of the novel approach, we experimentally compare the sketch portraits generated by the proposed method with that of a state-of-the-art example-based facial sketch generation algorithm as well as a couple commercial software packages. The comparisons reveal that our CBR based synthesis method for facial portraits is superior both in capturing and reproducing artists' personal illustration styles to the peer methods.

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Photorealistic image stylization concerns transferring style of a reference photo to a content photo with the constraint that the stylized photo should remain photorealistic. While several photorealistic image stylization methods exist, they tend to generate spatially inconsistent stylizations with noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a method to address these issues. The proposed method consists of a stylization step and a smoothing step. While the stylization step transfers the style of the reference photo to the content photo, the smoothing step ensures spatially consistent stylizations. Each of the steps has a closed-form solution and can be computed efficiently. We conduct extensive experimental validations. The results show that the proposed method generates photorealistic stylization outputs that are more preferred by human subjects as compared to those by the competing methods while running much faster. Source code and additional results are available at https://github.com/NVIDIA/FastPhotoStyle .

* Accepted by ECCV 2018
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Numerous style transfer methods which produce artistic styles of portraits have been proposed to date. However, the inverse problem of converting the stylized portraits back into realistic faces is yet to be investigated thoroughly. Reverting an artistic portrait to its original photo-realistic face image has potential to facilitate human perception and identity analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel Face Destylization Neural Network (FDNN) to restore the latent photo-realistic faces from the stylized ones. We develop a Style Removal Network composed of convolutional, fully-connected and deconvolutional layers. The convolutional layers are designed to extract facial components from stylized face images. Consecutively, the fully-connected layer transfers the extracted feature maps of stylized images into the corresponding feature maps of real faces and the deconvolutional layers generate real faces from the transferred feature maps. To enforce the destylized faces to be similar to authentic face images, we employ a discriminative network, which consists of convolutional and fully connected layers. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our network by conducting experiments on an extensive set of synthetic images. Furthermore, we illustrate our network can recover faces from stylized portraits and real paintings for which the stylized data was unavailable during the training phase.

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We introduce a new technique that automatically generates diverse, visually compelling stylizations for a photograph in an unsupervised manner. We achieve this by learning style ranking for a given input using a large photo collection and selecting a diverse subset of matching styles for final style transfer. We also propose a novel technique that transfers the global color and tone of the chosen exemplars to the input photograph while avoiding the common visual artifacts produced by the existing style transfer methods. Together, our style selection and transfer techniques produce compelling, artifact-free results on a wide range of input photographs, and a user study shows that our results are preferred over other techniques.

* 12 pages, 11 figures
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Modelling human free-hand sketches has become topical recently, driven by practical applications such as fine-grained sketch based image retrieval (FG-SBIR). Sketches are clearly related to photo edge-maps, but a human free-hand sketch of a photo is not simply a clean rendering of that photo's edge map. Instead there is a fundamental process of abstraction and iconic rendering, where overall geometry is warped and salient details are selectively included. In this paper we study this sketching process and attempt to invert it. We model this inversion by translating iconic free-hand sketches to contours that resemble more geometrically realistic projections of object boundaries, and separately factorise out the salient added details. This factorised re-representation makes it easier to match a free-hand sketch to a photo instance of an object. Specifically, we propose a novel unsupervised image style transfer model based on enforcing a cyclic embedding consistency constraint. A deep FG-SBIR model is then formulated to accommodate complementary discriminative detail from each factorised sketch for better matching with the corresponding photo. Our method is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively to demonstrate its superiority over a number of state-of-the-art alternatives for style transfer and FG-SBIR.

* Accepted to ECCV 2018
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Transferring artistic styles onto everyday photographs has become an extremely popular task in both academia and industry. Recently, offline training has replaced on-line iterative optimization, enabling nearly real-time stylization. When those stylization networks are applied directly to high-resolution images, however, the style of localized regions often appears less similar to the desired artistic style. This is because the transfer process fails to capture small, intricate textures and maintain correct texture scales of the artworks. Here we propose a multimodal convolutional neural network that takes into consideration faithful representations of both color and luminance channels, and performs stylization hierarchically with multiple losses of increasing scales. Compared to state-of-the-art networks, our network can also perform style transfer in nearly real-time by conducting much more sophisticated training offline. By properly handling style and texture cues at multiple scales using several modalities, we can transfer not just large-scale, obvious style cues but also subtle, exquisite ones. That is, our scheme can generate results that are visually pleasing and more similar to multiple desired artistic styles with color and texture cues at multiple scales.

* Accepted by CVPR 2017
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We address the problem of transferring the style of a headshot photo to face images. Existing methods using a single exemplar lead to inaccurate results when the exemplar does not contain sufficient stylized facial components for a given photo. In this work, we propose an algorithm to stylize face images using multiple exemplars containing different subjects in the same style. Patch correspondences between an input photo and multiple exemplars are established using a Markov Random Field (MRF), which enables accurate local energy transfer via Laplacian stacks. As image patches from multiple exemplars are used, the boundaries of facial components on the target image are inevitably inconsistent. The artifacts are removed by a post-processing step using an edge-preserving filter. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm consistently produces visually pleasing results.

* In CVIU 2017. Project Page: http://www.cs.cityu.edu.hk/~yibisong/cviu17/index.html
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Facial caricature is an art form of drawing faces in an exaggerated way to convey humor or sarcasm. In this paper, we propose the first Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for unpaired photo-to-caricature translation, which we call "CariGANs". It explicitly models geometric exaggeration and appearance stylization using two components: CariGeoGAN, which only models the geometry-to-geometry transformation from face photos to caricatures, and CariStyGAN, which transfers the style appearance from caricatures to face photos without any geometry deformation. In this way, a difficult cross-domain translation problem is decoupled into two easier tasks. The perceptual study shows that caricatures generated by our CariGANs are closer to the hand-drawn ones, and at the same time better persevere the identity, compared to state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our CariGANs allow users to control the shape exaggeration degree and change the color/texture style by tuning the parameters or giving an example caricature.

* ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 37, No. 6, Article 244. Publication date: November 2018
* To appear at SIGGRAPH Asia 2018
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Convolutional Neural Networks have been highly successful in performing a host of computer vision tasks such as object recognition, object detection, image segmentation and texture synthesis. In 2015, Gatys et. al [7] show how the style of a painter can be extracted from an image of the painting and applied to another normal photograph, thus recreating the photo in the style of the painter. The method has been successfully applied to a wide range of images and has since spawned multiple applications and mobile apps. In this paper, the neural style transfer algorithm is applied to fashion so as to synthesize new custom clothes. We construct an approach to personalize and generate new custom clothes based on a users preference and by learning the users fashion choices from a limited set of clothes from their closet. The approach is evaluated by analyzing the generated images of clothes and how well they align with the users fashion style.

* ML4Fashion 2017
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Photorealistic style transfer aims to transfer the style of one image to another, but preserves the original structure and detail outline of the content image, which makes the content image still look like a real shot after the style transfer. Although some realistic image styling methods have been proposed, these methods are vulnerable to lose the details of the content image and produce some irregular distortion structures. In this paper, we use a high-resolution network as the image generation network. Compared to other methods, which reduce the resolution and then restore the high resolution, our generation network maintains high resolution throughout the process. By connecting high-resolution subnets to low-resolution subnets in parallel and repeatedly multi-scale fusion, high-resolution subnets can continuously receive information from low-resolution subnets. This allows our network to discard less information contained in the image, so the generated images may have a more elaborate structure and less distortion, which is crucial to the visual quality. We conducted extensive experiments and compared the results with existing methods. The experimental results show that our model is effective and produces better results than existing methods for photorealistic image stylization. Our source code with PyTorch framework will be publicly available at https://github.com/limingcv/Photorealistic-Style-Transfer

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