Semantic parsing is the task of transducing natural language (NL) utterances into formal meaning representations (MRs), commonly represented as tree structures. Annotating NL utterances with their corresponding MRs is expensive and time-consuming, and thus the limited availability of labeled data often becomes the bottleneck of data-driven, supervised models. We introduce StructVAE, a variational auto-encoding model for semisupervised semantic parsing, which learns both from limited amounts of parallel data, and readily-available unlabeled NL utterances. StructVAE models latent MRs not observed in the unlabeled data as tree-structured latent variables. Experiments on semantic parsing on the ATIS domain and Python code generation show that with extra unlabeled data, StructVAE outperforms strong supervised models. Click to Read Paper
Generalization performance of classifiers in deep learning has recently become a subject of intense study. Deep models, typically over-parametrized, tend to fit the training data exactly. Despite this "overfitting", they perform well on test data, a phenomenon not yet fully understood. The first point of our paper is that strong performance of overfitted classifiers is not a unique feature of deep learning. Using six real-world and two synthetic datasets, we establish experimentally that kernel machines trained to have zero classification or near zero regression error perform very well on test data, even when the labels are corrupted with a high level of noise. We proceed to give a lower bound on the norm of zero loss solutions for smooth kernels, showing that they increase nearly exponentially with data size. We point out that this is difficult to reconcile with the existing generalization bounds. Moreover, none of the bounds produce non-trivial results for interpolating solutions. Second, we show experimentally that (non-smooth) Laplacian kernels easily fit random labels, a finding that parallels results for ReLU neural networks. In contrast, fitting noisy data requires many more epochs for smooth Gaussian kernels. Similar performance of overfitted Laplacian and Gaussian classifiers on test, suggests that generalization is tied to the properties of the kernel function rather than the optimization process. Certain key phenomena of deep learning are manifested similarly in kernel methods in the modern "overfitted" regime. The combination of the experimental and theoretical results presented in this paper indicates a need for new theoretical ideas for understanding properties of classical kernel methods. We argue that progress on understanding deep learning will be difficult until more tractable "shallow" kernel methods are better understood. Click to Read Paper
We propose Generative Adversarial Tree Search (GATS), a sample-efficient Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithm. While Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is known to be effective for search and planning in RL, it is often sample-inefficient and therefore expensive to apply in practice. In this work, we develop a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture to model an environment's dynamics and a predictor model for the reward function. We exploit collected data from interaction with the environment to learn these models, which we then use for model-based planning. During planning, we deploy a finite depth MCTS, using the learned model for tree search and a learned Q-value for the leaves, to find the best action. We theoretically show that GATS improves the bias-variance trade-off in value-based DRL. Moreover, we show that the generative model learns the model dynamics using orders of magnitude fewer samples than the Q-learner. In non-stationary settings where the environment model changes, we find the generative model adapts significantly faster than the Q-learner to the new environment. Click to Read Paper
The Variational Autoencoder (VAE) has proven to be an effective model for producing semantically meaningful latent representations for natural data. However, it has thus far seen limited application to sequential data, and, as we demonstrate, existing recurrent VAE models have difficulty modeling sequences with long-term structure. To address this issue, we propose the use of a hierarchical decoder, which first outputs embeddings for subsequences of the input and then uses these embeddings to generate each subsequence independently. This structure encourages the model to utilize its latent code, thereby avoiding the "posterior collapse" problem which remains an issue for recurrent VAEs. We apply this architecture to modeling sequences of musical notes and find that it exhibits dramatically better sampling, interpolation, and reconstruction performance than a "flat" baseline model. An implementation of our "MusicVAE" is available online at http://g.co/magenta/musicvae-code. Click to Read Paper
By providing a simple and efficient way of computing low-variance gradients of continuous random variables, the reparameterization trick has become the technique of choice for training a variety of latent variable models. However, it is not applicable to a number of important continuous distributions. We introduce an alternative approach to computing reparameterization gradients based on implicit differentiation and demonstrate its broader applicability by applying it to Gamma, Beta, Dirichlet, and von Mises distributions, which cannot be used with the classic reparameterization trick. Our experiments show that the proposed approach is faster and more accurate than the existing gradient estimators for these distributions. Click to Read Paper
What can we learn from a connectome? We constructed a simplified model of the first two stages of the fly visual system, the lamina and medulla. The resulting hexagonal lattice convolutional network was trained using backpropagation through time to perform object tracking in natural scene videos. Networks initialized with weights from connectome reconstructions automatically discovered well-known orientation and direction selectivity properties in T4 neurons and their inputs, while networks initialized at random did not. Our work is the first demonstration, that knowledge of the connectome can enable in silico predictions of the functional properties of individual neurons in a circuit, leading to an understanding of circuit function from structure alone. Click to Read Paper
Recent advances in deep learning led to novel generative modeling techniques that achieve unprecedented quality in generated samples and performance in learning complex distributions in imaging data. These new models in medical image computing have important applications that form clinically relevant and very challenging unsupervised learning problems. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using state-of-the-art auto-encoder-based deep generative models, such as variational and adversarial auto-encoders, for one such task: abnormality detection in medical imaging. We utilize typical, publicly available datasets with brain scans from healthy subjects and patients with stroke lesions and brain tumors. We use the data from healthy subjects to train different auto-encoder based models to learn the distribution of healthy images and detect pathologies as outliers. Models that can better learn the data distribution should be able to detect outliers more accurately. We evaluate the detection performance of deep generative models and compare them with non-deep learning based approaches to provide a benchmark of the current state of research. We conclude that abnormality detection is a challenging task for deep generative models and large room exists for improvement. In order to facilitate further research, we aim to provide carefully pre-processed imaging data available to the research community. Click to Read Paper
Learning to infer Bayesian posterior from a few-shot dataset is an important step towards robust meta-learning due to the model uncertainty inherent in the problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian model-agnostic meta-learning method. The proposed method combines scalable gradient-based meta-learning with nonparametric variational inference in a principled probabilistic framework. During fast adaptation, the method is capable of learning complex uncertainty structure beyond a point estimate or a simple Gaussian approximation. In addition, a robust Bayesian meta-update mechanism with a new meta-loss prevents overfitting during meta-update. Remaining an efficient gradient-based meta-learner, the method is also model-agnostic and simple to implement. Experiment results show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method in various tasks: sinusoidal regression, image classification, active learning, and reinforcement learning. Click to Read Paper
This paper describes the submissions of the "Marian" team to the WNMT 2018 shared task. We investigate combinations of teacher-student training, low-precision matrix products, auto-tuning and other methods to optimize the Transformer model on GPU and CPU. By further integrating these methods with the new averaging attention networks, a recently introduced faster Transformer variant, we create a number of high-quality, high-performance models on the GPU and CPU, dominating the Pareto frontier for this shared task. Click to Read Paper